Testicles are part of the male reproductive system. The testicles are 2 egg-shaped glands located inside the scrotum. The scrotum is a sac of loose skin that hangs beneath the base of the penis.
Though this cancer is malignant, it is highly curable if detected at an early stage. Seminomas also have a good prognosis with patients stage I to stage IIB having a 5 year survival rate of 98% to 92%. These are very sensitive to radiation. Generally, it occurs in the age group 30-50 years.
Pure embryonal carcinomas occur only 3% to 4% of the time. This type of non-seminoma tends to grow rapidly and spread outside the testicle.
This is the most common form of testicular cancer in children (especially in infants), but pure yolk sac carcinomas are rare in adults. When they occur in children, these tumors usually are treated successfully.
This is a very rare and aggressive type of Testicular Cancer in adults. Pure choriocarcinoma is likely to spread rapidly to distant organs of the body, including the lungs, bones, and brain.
Testicular Cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. India had the lowest incidence of 0.5 per 100,000 men. Testicular Cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An in-depth understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in prognosis.
Detection of testicular cancer at an early stage is aided by the following symptoms:
The exact causes of testicular cancer are yet not confirmed. However, there are a few factors that considerably increase the chances of getting the disease. Some of the risk factors are discussed below.
The testicles usually develop inside the abdomen of the fetus and they descend into the scrotum before birth. Sometimes the testicle remains in the abdomen. In other cases, the testicle starts to descend but remains stuck in the groin area. Cryptorchidism with at least one testicle is found to the extent of 3% in prematurely born babies.
Undescended testicles continue moving down into the scrotum during the child’s first year of life. If the testicle has not descended by the time a child is a year old, it probably won’t go down on its own.
Males with cryptorchidism are several times more likely to get Testicular Cancer than those with normally descended testicles. In 90% of the cases, the undescended testis is confined to inguinal canal. It can be rectified through surgery.
Carcinoma in situ (CIS) means that there are abnormal cells in the testicle. It isn’t Cancer. There is no lump and usually no other symptoms.
These abnormal cells are completely contained. Unlike cancer cells, they can’t spread, if left untreated CIS develops into cancer in about half (50%) the men who have it.
CIS is most often found when a man has a testicular biopsy to check for infertility. It can be treated by removing the testicle to prevent testicular cancer from developing.
If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk.
Testicular Cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 20 and 35. However, it can occur at any age.
Testicular Cancer is more common in white men than in black men. It is 4 to 5 times more in white man than that of black men or Asian-American men.
Some evidence has shown that men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), particularly those with AIDS, are at increased risk.
Severe injury to the testicles can also cause Testicular Cancer.
A congenital condition in males in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis.
Many cases ofTesticular Cancer have no known factors. Also, the known factors of Testicular Cancer are natural and beyond one’s control. So it becomes quite impossible to prevent most cases of Testicular Cancer.
Regular examination and treating cryptorchidism might reduce the chances of occurrence of Testicular Cancer.
These stages are explained in details below:
T suffixed with a numerical or letter indicates the size and location of the tumor.
|Stage||5 year Survival Rate|
Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG).
Testicular Cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. The most common method to treat Testicular Cancer is through surgery.
In case of experiencing any of the mentioned symptoms or having a prior or familial history of testicular cancer, a physical examination by a doctor is highly recommended.
Being aware of the signs and symptoms will definitely help a patient to suspect the disease. In some cases, men discover Testicular Cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam.